女子在校学习成绩越来越好

图片 1图形来源于:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高卯月高档高校阶段,男孩正被女孩当先,且距离正逐年拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

一所高端保加阿拉木图语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那完全在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。纽约Bronx Leadership Academy参谋长IvanYip称“他们普及以为努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后边八个收取报酬3.8万澳元一年并存在潜水俱乐部;而另几个为其大多数学员提供午饭补贴,59%的学员有破例教学要求。然则,它们都平等致力于消除一样难点:青少年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是三个十几年前不恐怕想像的主题材料。直到19世纪70年间在此之前,男孩比女孩开销越来越长日子并取得越来越高等教学育,且更有希望从大学结业。今后,无论是富裕世界依旧越多的特殊困难国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经忧郁女孩缺少科学信心的政策拟定者们,现在更加的多时间在强行男孩前段时间摇晃《哈利Porter》。瑞士政坛已委托了一项关于“男孩风险”的钻探。澳大里昂联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)扩充了一项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的门类。仅仅几代时间内,前壹本性别差距消失,而后一种性别差距又冒出。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以巴黎为驻地的方便世界智库OECD于二月5号发表了一份简报中突显了这种反转。汉子在数学领域的主导地位差不离会不停。在平均年龄16周岁时,男孩当先同年龄女孩6个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现格外。可是,在阅读领域,女孩一向维持抢先地位,且距离变得更加大。在那项研商所涉及的六拾四个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现卓越。女孩平均比男孩超前叁个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一步学习供给依附读写技巧,OECD将它看作评估中最关键的本事。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的基本成遵守时,年轻男孩比女孩多出八分之四的挫败或然。在那些群体的青少年,因无所依据和无所卓越,而更有望从高校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要理解为啥男士和女子在课堂内展现出这么反差,先从课堂之外活动出手。一般16岁女孩每一周开支5.5小时去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多四个小时,他们费用更加的多日子玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女人将阅读作为消遣,而唯有四分之二多点的男士这么做。随着荧屏逐步把目光从本本挪开,世界上有所地方的阅读率正日趋下跌,而男人下落速度越来越快。OECD开掘,在那四个和一般女孩子专门的学业一般的男子中,在读书方面包车型地铁性别差距减少了53%左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一教学,男人就期盼快点甘休。在告知中,多于女人2倍的男子感到上课是浪费时间,何况更临时迟到。就像过去教师努力说服女孩子自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD近年来建议老人和计谋制订者携带男子远远地离开将忽视学术成就作为男士气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着有滋有味的下压力。但不幸的是,他们总结在坏行为上不负被人愿意。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有相当多做事可供未受教育男性选取时,男孩鄙视学校还展现没那么非理性。不过那叁个日子已经不复存在。也可能有的傲然有利于汉子学习数学,自信促使男人当先(但临时候则改为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们熟知”设想缩放“这一定义,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他俩紧缺约束让导师相当高烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

兴许因为他俩这么令人难以忍受,青年男孩常常给予很低分数。OECD开掘,男孩在无名测量检验中的表现好于名师评估。在阅读方面的性别差别收缩了50%;而在数学方面,已当先的汉子将反差拉大。另一研商展现,因老师贫乏公正,尽管本事拾贰分。男士也比女人更有希望被供给复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种差别对待?一种也许的疏解是先生给予那多少个礼貌、热心和远隔互殴的学员更加高分数,而那么些特点在女孩中更是广泛。在有的国家,以致会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种大概是,女人,构成了八成的小教的和左近十分之七的初级中学年岁至期頣师,更偏心她们自个儿的性别,仿佛男人上级偏心男性下属一般。在有个别地点在法国网球公开赛后也可以有性别主义:新加坡共和国照旧允许鞭刑男人,而女子则免于该商法。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在多少国家为男孩表现完美提供了境况。在拉丁美洲,阅读方面包车型地铁性别差距绝对非常小。如智利、哥伦比亚(República de Colombia)、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的男士落后于女孩子小于别的地方。可是,令人可疑的是,那总伴随着男人在数学方面抢先于女子的差异加大。反过来也构造建设。女孩与男孩在数学方面表现出色的冰岛、挪威和瑞士,挣扎于令人上火的稳步加宽的翻阅方面性别差距。自二零零一年OECD最终三遍就此开展的广大考查展现,少数国度男士在翻阅方面碰到了女子,而在另一部分国家女子成功减弱了数学方面包车型大巴距离。但并未有国家成功完结两方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

其中等教育育自此,女性的超过地位继续保持。直至新近数十年,男性差不离攻下高校的主流人群,特别是科学与工程领域的高阶课程。但是,随着高教在世界范围的生机勃勃,女性入学增加率大致两倍于男人。在OECD申报呈现,女人注册率由壹玖捌叁年的57%升起至57%,到2025年只怕上涨至51%。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不畏在个别女性是少数人全的OECD国家,女人数量也再稳步攀升。与此同一时候,一些囊括U.S.A.、大英帝国和亚洲国度,女人比男人人口多于二分一。在非常的多U.S.才女私立高校中,性别比例越来越平衡。许多少人感到那么些高校的不透明招生职业特别偏爱男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女人化进度如此缓慢,以致于在很短日子内未被人发觉。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二零零六年一份有关告知摘立时,大家“不依赖那结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

步向高校的女性,相对于她们的男子同僚,更有望结束学业,且赢得更加好地培养。可是,男人和女子所选科指标偏向差别。更加多地女人选取教育、健康、艺术和人文学科,而男人越多选取计算机、工程和精密科学等学科。在数学方面,女子正长久以来,而在科学、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于当先地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

周旋于别的蓄意的政策,社会变革更有助于慰勉女子步向高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的狂降,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女人找寻专门的学问提供了福利。随着越来越多女人步入职业遭受,歧视变得没那么显然。一旦女人被冀望全体专门的学问发展时,女孩就发现到学习的重要。上涨的离婚率使得女人意识到自家供养的第一。前段时间,无论是学业上大概职场上,世界外地的女孩比男孩表现出更龙岩想。不可思议,在19世界上半叶,大致大半美利坚联邦合众国做事禁止已婚女人从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女子是不是慢慢形成人中学坚性别?出版于二〇一二年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提出,至少在U.S.A.,女人不止教育上一马当先,还在专门的学问上和社会上抢先。许多国度的攻略制定者顾忌数量稳步攀升的下层阶级的教诲程度极低的男人的前程前景。女子也理应顾忌那点。在过去,女人一般与同阶层或超越本身阶层的男人成婚。假设这种男子相当少,大比非常多女子只可以搜索下阶层男人或选取不结合。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD彰显,虽不是百分百,不过在非常多国家,高教投入对女人的回报超过男性。一家访谈收入数据的集团America PayScale发现,女子对于高校文化水平的投资报酬率相对于男子来说,极低或(在特别景况下)相似。固然女人完全表现更是,但她俩薪酬水平仅为男子的3/4。主因在于相对于工程或微型计算机科学等,女子选取教育、人文和社科那类薪水很低科目。然则,学术切磋突显相对于男人,女子越来越少的敬重报酬,显示了谋求高回报并非女人追求高教的重中之重原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在最高层级的小买卖和行业内部领域,女子依旧很少。女子在学堂所表现优势被逆转。在这个学校,散文及考试评价是无名的,性别因素被防止,而爱戴女子不受性别歧视的影响。然则,来自于United KingdomCraneField理大学的Elisabeth Kelan称,在专门的职业场面古板格局再度表明本人。同等数量的男性和女人投入法大学和法律高校,不过,10-15年以往,好些个女子选拔了进一步干燥的差事路径或开销更加多时光陪孩子。与此同期,随着在此以前习得的经历的首要日益消退而本性、雄心和经验成为更为主要的熏陶因素,男子在工作层级上日渐攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

不短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是学院恐怕职场,女性所占比重不足,因而必要时刻去建构通往高层职位的水渠。不过40年来讲,一些国家毕业生人数中女性产生主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据早稻田州立大学医学教师ClaudiaGoldin称,女子崛起的结尾环节--平等的薪给和最棒职业只怕--若不进行大幅度结构调节是不会到来。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AECR-V的风靡文献中,戈尔德in女士发觉高水平劳引力中,在干活生活的10到15年间,男子时辰薪酬与女子差距巨大,主因在于高受益职业的小幅度奖金取决于长日子职业和随时应对电话为前提。全体来讲,男性相对于女子更加长于如此行事。在这种职业情势普遍的领域,如商业和法规,性别工资差距依然相当大。並且,以致长时间离开专业景况也说不定导致严重惩罚,意味着阿妈索要提交非常的大代价。而当专门的职业薪资首要信赖工时长度时,就像配药房,性别薪资差别非常小。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

高尔德in女士称:有个别事业是难以完毕灵活性的,就如那个主任s、法院开庭审判律师、男科医师、银行家和有些显赫政客们。而除此以外别的工作,报酬并非在于随时待命。同一时间,受过突出教育且想要脱离职业的男性也会从中收益。不过,新的性别差距位于薪金范围的另一端。受苦的绝不女子,而是无技巧的男性。

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女同样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend咸鱼翻身一种侧向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑帮心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula校园课程

  to reflect反映

  作品来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 网编:赵润琰

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